The Narwhal Project
Research and Perspectives on Scaling Technology Companies
The Narwhal Project was initiated at the Impact Centre at the University of Toronto. Our objective is to discover the underlying factors that lead to the creation of world-class technology companies. This project undertakes research and provides perspectives on scaling. In this way, we hope that startups, governments, and academia can identify and adopt best practices in technology commercialization.
Three years ago, we initiated the Narwhal Project to conduct research to discover the root causes of Canada’s challenges in creating a world-leading innovation economy. We thought it would be useful at this juncture to summarize our findings. This report highlights some of the issues we have identified.
The Formula for Scaling to World Class
There is a financial formula for scaling to become a world class company. These are the rough parameters of that formula. Once it starts scaling, a company must plan to grow at least 100% a year for 5 to 10 years. In order to do that, the company will need to raise about $2.5 of capital for every $1 of revenue. It will also need to allocate almost twice as much spending on marketing and sales as it does on research and development.
Target Annual Growth Rate
Capital as a % of Revenue
Losses as a % of Revenue
Marketing & Sales as a % of Revenue
If you think you have a great business or product idea your success will depend in part on how well you understand your prospective customer. In fact, If you listen closely, your customers will tell you what business you are in.
This book is all about understanding those potential customers. It’s about figuring out what triggers them to buy and what barriers get in the way of you making a sale. It’s about how to listen to customers so that you can understand their behavior and capitalize on it to make your business a resounding success.
The thing about customers is that they don’t talk very loudly. In fact, sometimes they won’t talk to you at all. They won’t tell you what they want or what you should create. Customers won’t tell you what triggers them to make a purchase. They also won’t tell you why they won’t buy, or what barriers get in the way of them making a purchase. As a result, they might not even know that what you have is something they need.
What you need is a framework to help you listen to customers, to understand what triggers them, what barriers stop them, and how they view your competition. That’s what we’re going to give you in this book: a framework to help you understand your prospective customers’ triggers and barriers – how they think, what they feel, and how your idea relates to their lives.